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Books > Hindi > Hindi For Non-Hindi Speaking People
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Hindi For Non-Hindi Speaking People
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Hindi For Non-Hindi Speaking People
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Description

Back Of The Book

Hindi for Non-Hindi Speaking People is an original two-in-one monograph that covers grammar and is a reader for beginners. The book has virtually sprung from Kavita Kumar's long experience of teaching Hindi to foreign students of several nationalities. It can be used both as a classroom text and for self study. It is designed to meet the needs of the novice, taking him/her gradually to intermediate and upper-intermediate levels of proficiency. The book can be gainfully used even by fairly advanced students who, nevertheless, still sometimes make grammatical mistakes in speech and writing.

The book is a complete course in an easy-to-follow style comprising of a series of meticulously arranged and graded lesions (units). A complete course in spoken and written Hindi - a practical course that is both fun and easily comprehensible. A journey to the Hindi alphabet, its vowels, consonants, conjunct letters and phonetic transliteration, through the sections of practice reading tailored to fit interesting and practical daily life situations in India. She explains everything clearly along the way with many opportunities to practice what you learn, gives exercises of reading based on rules explained earlier in the text, lists of antonyms and synonyms, sound words and phrases, and idioms and essentials of grammar dealt with a minimum of jargon.

The book fulfills a long-felt need for reference Hindi grammar for non Hindi-speaking people in or outside the country.

Kavita Kumar was born in November 1936 in Rawalpindi (now in Pakistan). A Master's degree holder from Delhi University, she taught at Directorate of Correspondence Courses, Delhi University; Lady Irwin College, Delhi; Degree College, Panipat; Janaki Devi College, Delhi and Government Girls College, Gorakhpur. She has also taught Hindi to students from England, USA, Germany, Sweden, Norway, France, Switzerland, Japan, Korea and Thailand.
She is married and lives in Varanasi. She has two daughters.

Preface

Having been engaged for over a decade in teaching Hindi to foreign students of several nationalities, I was concerned at the lack of a satisfactory text which would fully meet a student's requirements. I have attempted to design these lessons with a view to introduce the readers to vowels, consonants, phonetic transliteration and speech patterns, in an easy-to-follow, readable style. Grammar structures have been explained first and are then followed by reading and comprehension passages. Glossaries and exercises have been given to enable the learners to assess their performance from time to time.

Situational dialogues have been included in order to enhance the utility of the book for tourists and other visitors to India. The dialogues should equip the reader to cope with routine tasks happening in daily life.

The English translation of Hindi structures may, in some cases, be found to be not very precise or accurate by English speaking people. I am conscious of this anomaly which arises form the inherent bilingual organization; the accuracy has had to be occasionally sacrificed with a view to teaching good Hindi for which a word-for-word translation was considered essential, and which may not exactly be the same as a native speaker might use.

Because of differences in syntax and speech patterns between Hindi and various foreign languages, I have ad to respond to a variety of queries, questions, and doubts from my students; this kind of interaction has been a strong motivation and driving force for undertaking and completing this venture. I have had the good fortune of interacting with a number of discerning, critical, and enthusiastic students, some of whom have themselves been involved in teaching their own native language as a foreign language in other countries; they have read portions of the manuscript and given valuable comments, criticisms, and suggestions, which I greatly value. In fact, the teaching plan incorporated in this book has been successfully tested and as enabled many students, without any prior knowledge of Hindi, to learn to read, write and speak the language fairly fluently.

Apart from my former and present students to whom I am greatly indebted, I wish to thank Mr. Kamal Malik of the Affiliated East West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, and the editorial staff of Rupa and Company, for their helpful discussions, advice, and encouragement. Gyanendra Prasad Shukla deserves special mention for typing both Hindi and English scripts.

Any comments or suggestions for improvement of the text will be greatly appreciated.

 

Introduction

Hindi uses the Devanagri script of Sanskrit, believed to be a divine language. Its alphabet is arranged in a fascinating, scientific order, beginning with the velars, moving forward through the prepalatals, palatals and dentals to the labials. Each row has five consonants produced in distinctly separate regions of the mouth, again very scientifically arranged; the aspirates following the non-aspirates, ending in nasal consonants, thus giving a soothing rest to the learner.

Devanagri script is written from left to right. There are no capital letters.

Being a phonetic language it has no pronunciation ambiguities. There are no silent letters. The language is almost read the way it is written.

Indian perception of life in every object is imbibed in the language; hence only two genders, masculine and feminine are recognized grammatically. The native speakers grow up with the language and learn the genders naturally without any special effort. Foreign students are advised to learn the gender with every new noun-word. The sound of a word is the master key initiating the intuitive lead to accurate gender-determination.

During my years of teaching the Hindi language to foreign students, particularly from European countries and America, I have often noticed the difficulties caused by several constructions where the subject is followed by (ko), the causative verbs as well as the use of the same word (kal) for tomorrow as well as yesterday.

Language is after all a mirror reflecting the culture, religion, philosophy and social structure of a country. The basic Hindu belief admitting the supremacy and omnipotence of the creator of the universe, accepting Him as the doer of all activity and assuming for the people a very humble passive role as recipients of His grace or wrath is reflected in the language. Instead of the subject in the nominative case, language constructions with the dative case of the subject (i.e. subject followed by ) are found in plenty; the underlying concept is that the subject is not actively doing the action but things are actually happening to him. For instance while an English language speaker says, 'I am hungry.', 'I hurt myself.', or 'I like it', the corresponding constructions by a Hindi language speaker are 'mujhko bhOkh lagT hai ., 'mujhko cot lagi hai' etc., meaning respectively 'To me hunger is.', 'To me injury is.', or 'To me it pleasing is.'

The profuse use as well as availability of the causative verbs does not sound strange in a society like ours with ages'-Iong, deeply-ingrained caste structure where a class of people has been recognized as mainly existing for providing service to those higher up in the caste hierarchy - without any guilty conscience perhaps! Naturally the native speakers did not consider it worth their effort to devise any syntactic formation to express the meaning of having something done by somebody; instead they learnt dexterously to form causative verb roots by a quick morphological process, in fixing between the transitive or intransitive verb roots and their (na) endings.

Our impressions of the Time as an eternally revolving wheel without any beginning or end never presented any justification for the use of two distinctly separate words for the time past or immediately following the present The verb endings are enough of a clue to help the smooth functioning of our worldly business.

Students will certainly come across several similar constructions while learning the language. However, if interpreted and understood in the religio socio-philosophical background as briefly explained above, they are easily comprehended and mastered.

Contents
  Preface  
  Abbreviations  
  Unit  
  Introduction 1
1 Hindi Alphabets  
  Vowels 3
  Consonants 4
  Nasal vowels 5
  Use of 'candrabindu' 5
  Nasal consonants 5
  Use of 'anuswar' 5
  Modified letters from the Persian Language 7
  Syllabic, intrasyllabic use of the vowels 7
  Visarga 8
  Guidelines for pronunciation 8
  Vocabulary -1 : Adverbs, adjectives 9
  Consonants and intrasyllabic forms of vowels written together 10
  Conjunct letters 11
  Names of days 12
2 Pronouns: Nominative case - 1 13
  Pronouns : Oblique case 14
  Simple postpositions 14
3 Verbs of being 15
  Vocabulary - 2: Adverbs 17
  Vocabulary - 3: Verbs 18
4 Present Simple 19-24
  Language structures and models 19-20
  Uses of the present Indefinite tense in Hindi 21
  Reading - 1; Reading - 2 22-24
5 Past Habitual 25-27
  Language structures and models 25-28
  Compare and comprehend 27
6 Imperative 28-31
  Language structures 28-30
  Uses of Imperative 31
7 Compound postpositions 32-36
  Use of 36
  Comprehension - 1; Comprehension - 2 34-36
  Use of as adverbs 36
8 To have 37
  Inanimate objects 38
9 Present and past progressive tenses 39-40
  Language structures 39
  Examples 40
10 Present and past perfect continuous tenses 41-42
  Language structures 41
  Examples 42
11 Past simple present perfect and past perfect tenses 43-54
  Nominative case -2 43
  Changing the verb infinitive to past participle 44
  Language structures: past simple, present perfect, past perfect 45-48
  Examples : Past simple, present perfect, past perfect tense 48-51
  Uses of past simple tense 52
  Uses of past perfect tense 52
  Uses of present perfect tense 53
12 Future simple tense 55
  Language structures: 1 Future simple 55
  Future continuous tense 57
  Future perfect tense-1; Future perfect tense-2 58
13 Presumptive language structures 59-62
  Language structures 59-61
  Examples 61-62
14 Use of the verbs 63-65
  English equivalent 'have already + PP'  
15 (To like) 66
  (To like) 67
  (To like) 68
16 Use of 'v. r.'- As soon as 69
  Use of - As soon as 71
  Use of 'v. r. No sooner…than… 72
17 Ability structure - can, could, be able to 73-77
  Language structures 73-75
  Uses of 76
  Use of the verb 77
18 Probability - Use of 78-82
  Language structures 79-80
  Examples: Present, past, future 80-82
19 Planned future: 'X' 83-85
20 Apprehensions 86
21 Use of - want 87-90
22 Use of present and past participle constructions 91-96
23 Use of the suffix 97-101
24 Use o the absolutive participle; - conjunct 102-104
25 Continuative compound: 'v. r. 'keep on v…ing' 105-109
26 Possessive case 110-112
27 Compulsion compounds : Use of 113-116
  Language structures expressing probability and compulsion 117-118
  Use of to express need or desire 119-121
28 Inceptive compound: 'v. r. 122-124
29 Permissive compound 'v. r.' 125-131
30 Conditionals: use of 132-135
31 Expressing wishes: use of 136-137
32 'X' / 'X' 138-142
  To be used to doing something  
33 Verbs 143-165
  Verb agreement 143
  Intransitive and transitive verbs 144
  Causative - 1: Causative -2 144-155
  Compound verbs 156-159
  Conjunct verbs 159-161
  Sense verbs 162-163
  Sound verbs 163-164
  Nominal verbs 165
34 Passive voice 166-178
35 Nouns 179-192
  Gender 179-184
  Cases 185
  Number 186
  Declension of the noun 186-191
  Use of infinitive as noun 192
36 Pronouns 194-201
  Personal pronouns 194-195
  Definite pronouns; Indefinite pronouns 195-200
  Interrogative pronouns 200-203
  Relative pronouns 204-205
  Reflexive pronouns 205-207
37 Adjectives 208-226
  Pronominal adjectives 208-211
  Adjectives of quality 211-213
  Adjectives : base from, comparatives, superlatives 214-218
  Declinable adjectives; Indeclinable adjectives 218-220
  Adjectives of number: cardinals; ordinals 221-222
  Multiplicatives; Aggregatives; Fractions 223-224
  Distributive adjectives 225
  Indefinite quantity adjectives 225-226
  Participles used as adjectives 226
38 Adverbs 227-232
  Classification 227-229
  Adverbial usages 230-232
  Participles used as adverbs 232
39 Use of postpositions 233-246
  Use of 233
  Use of 233-237
  Use of 237-240
  Use of 240-242
  Use of 242-244
  Use of 244-246
40 Time expressions 247-253
  What time is it ? How long does it take 247-248
  Use of time expression etc. 249-253
41 Usages 254-281
  When else, what else etc. 254
  God knows 254
  Echo words 255
  Uses of 256
  Uses of 257-258
  Use of 'or else' 'Not even' 259
  Use of (only) 260
  Use of (also) 261
  Use of (purpose clause); (reason clause) 261
  (neither…nor) 262
  Use of (either…or) 263
  (although - concessive clause) 261
  (After all), (certainly) 264
  (not at all); (of course) 265
  Use of (without); (even if) 266
  (because of) 267
  (instead of); 268
  (much more than) 268
  conditional; (on the contrary) 269
  (introductory use); (somehow) 270
  (as soon as) 271
  (progressive) 271
  (exactly the same as before) 272
  'X' 'X' 'X' (not to speak of X) 72
  (for a long time); 273
  (for no reason or purpose) 273
  'X' 'X' - nothing but 'X' 274
  'X' - 'Y' (whether X or Y) 274
  'X'- 'Y' (whether X or Y) 274
  (hardly) 274
  (come what may); 275
  (Do what you like) 275
  (in spite of) 276
  (v. r.) + (v. r.) + (it almost happened) 276
  (in no time) 276
  Reduplicative expressions 277
  Use of 278
  Relative adverbs: 278
  Relative pronouns: 279
  Use of some abstract nouns and their adjectival forms 280
  (to be visible); (to be audible) 281
42 Compare and comprehend 282-294
  Use of stative verbs, change of state verbs 282
  Use of 282
  Use of 283
  Use of 284
  More on pres. Cont. tense 285
  Use of 287
  Use of 288
  Use of 290
  Use of 291
  Use of IPC. PPC 292
  Use of -emphatic 293
43 imperatives and exclamations 294
44 Punctuation 295
45 Antonyms 296-297
46 Synonyms 298-300
47 Sound words 301
48 Idioms 303-311
49 Proverbs 312-313
50 READINGS Page
R-1 Pres. Simple 314
R-2 Imperative 317
R-3 Pres. Prog. tense 318
R-4 Pres. Prog. tense 319
R-5 Recapitulation 321
R-6 Past progressive 322
R-7 Possessive case 323
  Vocabulary: Blood relations 324
R-8 Time 325
R-9 Past tense 326
R-10 Past tense 328
R-11 Miscellaneous 330
R-12 {Press. Perf.} 331
R-13 {Press. Perf. Cont.} 332
R-14 Can, Could 333
R-15 Can, Could 334
R-16 Fut. tense 336
  Vocabulary: Planets, zodiac signs 337
R-17 Planned fut. 338
R-18 PPC; IPC 339
R-19 Cont. comp. 343
R-20 Prog. Comp. 346
R-21 Adjectives 348
R-22 Adjectives 350
R-23 Adjectives 352
R-24 Letter 354
R-25 Letter 356
R-26 Letter 358
  Recipes 361-362
  Vocabulary: fats, grains, species, cooking 362-365
51 EVERYDAY EXPRESSIONS  
EE-1   366
EE-2   367
    367
EE-3 Hiring a rickshaw 368
  Appointment 368
EE-4 Hospitality 369
EE-5 Asking directions 370
    371
EE-6 1 Changing money 373
  2 Opening an account 374
  3 Encashing Traveller's cheques 375
EE-7 Consulting the doctor 376
  Vocabulary: body parts 377
  Buying medicine 378
  Buying medicine 379
EE-8 1 Buying envelopes, stamps 380
  2 Sending parcels abroad 381
EE-9 Buying vegetables 384
  Vocabulary: vegetables 385
EE-10 Buying fruit 386
  Vocabulary: Fruit 387
EE-11 Dialogue - marriage in India 388
EE-12 1 Railway station 391
  2 Railway -information 391
13 Weather 394
  Appendix - 1 Hindu calendar months, dates; mathematical calculations  
  Appendix - 2 (Sandhi), (compound words)  
  Glossary Of Grammar Terms  
  Index - English  
  Index - Hindi  

Sample Pages



Hindi For Non-Hindi Speaking People

Item Code:
IDI763
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2010
ISBN:
9788171673506
Language:
hindi
Size:
8.1" X 5.1
Pages:
411
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 460 gms
Price:
$27.00
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$21.60   Shipping Free
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Back Of The Book

Hindi for Non-Hindi Speaking People is an original two-in-one monograph that covers grammar and is a reader for beginners. The book has virtually sprung from Kavita Kumar's long experience of teaching Hindi to foreign students of several nationalities. It can be used both as a classroom text and for self study. It is designed to meet the needs of the novice, taking him/her gradually to intermediate and upper-intermediate levels of proficiency. The book can be gainfully used even by fairly advanced students who, nevertheless, still sometimes make grammatical mistakes in speech and writing.

The book is a complete course in an easy-to-follow style comprising of a series of meticulously arranged and graded lesions (units). A complete course in spoken and written Hindi - a practical course that is both fun and easily comprehensible. A journey to the Hindi alphabet, its vowels, consonants, conjunct letters and phonetic transliteration, through the sections of practice reading tailored to fit interesting and practical daily life situations in India. She explains everything clearly along the way with many opportunities to practice what you learn, gives exercises of reading based on rules explained earlier in the text, lists of antonyms and synonyms, sound words and phrases, and idioms and essentials of grammar dealt with a minimum of jargon.

The book fulfills a long-felt need for reference Hindi grammar for non Hindi-speaking people in or outside the country.

Kavita Kumar was born in November 1936 in Rawalpindi (now in Pakistan). A Master's degree holder from Delhi University, she taught at Directorate of Correspondence Courses, Delhi University; Lady Irwin College, Delhi; Degree College, Panipat; Janaki Devi College, Delhi and Government Girls College, Gorakhpur. She has also taught Hindi to students from England, USA, Germany, Sweden, Norway, France, Switzerland, Japan, Korea and Thailand.
She is married and lives in Varanasi. She has two daughters.

Preface

Having been engaged for over a decade in teaching Hindi to foreign students of several nationalities, I was concerned at the lack of a satisfactory text which would fully meet a student's requirements. I have attempted to design these lessons with a view to introduce the readers to vowels, consonants, phonetic transliteration and speech patterns, in an easy-to-follow, readable style. Grammar structures have been explained first and are then followed by reading and comprehension passages. Glossaries and exercises have been given to enable the learners to assess their performance from time to time.

Situational dialogues have been included in order to enhance the utility of the book for tourists and other visitors to India. The dialogues should equip the reader to cope with routine tasks happening in daily life.

The English translation of Hindi structures may, in some cases, be found to be not very precise or accurate by English speaking people. I am conscious of this anomaly which arises form the inherent bilingual organization; the accuracy has had to be occasionally sacrificed with a view to teaching good Hindi for which a word-for-word translation was considered essential, and which may not exactly be the same as a native speaker might use.

Because of differences in syntax and speech patterns between Hindi and various foreign languages, I have ad to respond to a variety of queries, questions, and doubts from my students; this kind of interaction has been a strong motivation and driving force for undertaking and completing this venture. I have had the good fortune of interacting with a number of discerning, critical, and enthusiastic students, some of whom have themselves been involved in teaching their own native language as a foreign language in other countries; they have read portions of the manuscript and given valuable comments, criticisms, and suggestions, which I greatly value. In fact, the teaching plan incorporated in this book has been successfully tested and as enabled many students, without any prior knowledge of Hindi, to learn to read, write and speak the language fairly fluently.

Apart from my former and present students to whom I am greatly indebted, I wish to thank Mr. Kamal Malik of the Affiliated East West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, and the editorial staff of Rupa and Company, for their helpful discussions, advice, and encouragement. Gyanendra Prasad Shukla deserves special mention for typing both Hindi and English scripts.

Any comments or suggestions for improvement of the text will be greatly appreciated.

 

Introduction

Hindi uses the Devanagri script of Sanskrit, believed to be a divine language. Its alphabet is arranged in a fascinating, scientific order, beginning with the velars, moving forward through the prepalatals, palatals and dentals to the labials. Each row has five consonants produced in distinctly separate regions of the mouth, again very scientifically arranged; the aspirates following the non-aspirates, ending in nasal consonants, thus giving a soothing rest to the learner.

Devanagri script is written from left to right. There are no capital letters.

Being a phonetic language it has no pronunciation ambiguities. There are no silent letters. The language is almost read the way it is written.

Indian perception of life in every object is imbibed in the language; hence only two genders, masculine and feminine are recognized grammatically. The native speakers grow up with the language and learn the genders naturally without any special effort. Foreign students are advised to learn the gender with every new noun-word. The sound of a word is the master key initiating the intuitive lead to accurate gender-determination.

During my years of teaching the Hindi language to foreign students, particularly from European countries and America, I have often noticed the difficulties caused by several constructions where the subject is followed by (ko), the causative verbs as well as the use of the same word (kal) for tomorrow as well as yesterday.

Language is after all a mirror reflecting the culture, religion, philosophy and social structure of a country. The basic Hindu belief admitting the supremacy and omnipotence of the creator of the universe, accepting Him as the doer of all activity and assuming for the people a very humble passive role as recipients of His grace or wrath is reflected in the language. Instead of the subject in the nominative case, language constructions with the dative case of the subject (i.e. subject followed by ) are found in plenty; the underlying concept is that the subject is not actively doing the action but things are actually happening to him. For instance while an English language speaker says, 'I am hungry.', 'I hurt myself.', or 'I like it', the corresponding constructions by a Hindi language speaker are 'mujhko bhOkh lagT hai ., 'mujhko cot lagi hai' etc., meaning respectively 'To me hunger is.', 'To me injury is.', or 'To me it pleasing is.'

The profuse use as well as availability of the causative verbs does not sound strange in a society like ours with ages'-Iong, deeply-ingrained caste structure where a class of people has been recognized as mainly existing for providing service to those higher up in the caste hierarchy - without any guilty conscience perhaps! Naturally the native speakers did not consider it worth their effort to devise any syntactic formation to express the meaning of having something done by somebody; instead they learnt dexterously to form causative verb roots by a quick morphological process, in fixing between the transitive or intransitive verb roots and their (na) endings.

Our impressions of the Time as an eternally revolving wheel without any beginning or end never presented any justification for the use of two distinctly separate words for the time past or immediately following the present The verb endings are enough of a clue to help the smooth functioning of our worldly business.

Students will certainly come across several similar constructions while learning the language. However, if interpreted and understood in the religio socio-philosophical background as briefly explained above, they are easily comprehended and mastered.

Contents
  Preface  
  Abbreviations  
  Unit  
  Introduction 1
1 Hindi Alphabets  
  Vowels 3
  Consonants 4
  Nasal vowels 5
  Use of 'candrabindu' 5
  Nasal consonants 5
  Use of 'anuswar' 5
  Modified letters from the Persian Language 7
  Syllabic, intrasyllabic use of the vowels 7
  Visarga 8
  Guidelines for pronunciation 8
  Vocabulary -1 : Adverbs, adjectives 9
  Consonants and intrasyllabic forms of vowels written together 10
  Conjunct letters 11
  Names of days 12
2 Pronouns: Nominative case - 1 13
  Pronouns : Oblique case 14
  Simple postpositions 14
3 Verbs of being 15
  Vocabulary - 2: Adverbs 17
  Vocabulary - 3: Verbs 18
4 Present Simple 19-24
  Language structures and models 19-20
  Uses of the present Indefinite tense in Hindi 21
  Reading - 1; Reading - 2 22-24
5 Past Habitual 25-27
  Language structures and models 25-28
  Compare and comprehend 27
6 Imperative 28-31
  Language structures 28-30
  Uses of Imperative 31
7 Compound postpositions 32-36
  Use of 36
  Comprehension - 1; Comprehension - 2 34-36
  Use of as adverbs 36
8 To have 37
  Inanimate objects 38
9 Present and past progressive tenses 39-40
  Language structures 39
  Examples 40
10 Present and past perfect continuous tenses 41-42
  Language structures 41
  Examples 42
11 Past simple present perfect and past perfect tenses 43-54
  Nominative case -2 43
  Changing the verb infinitive to past participle 44
  Language structures: past simple, present perfect, past perfect 45-48
  Examples : Past simple, present perfect, past perfect tense 48-51
  Uses of past simple tense 52
  Uses of past perfect tense 52
  Uses of present perfect tense 53
12 Future simple tense 55
  Language structures: 1 Future simple 55
  Future continuous tense 57
  Future perfect tense-1; Future perfect tense-2 58
13 Presumptive language structures 59-62
  Language structures 59-61
  Examples 61-62
14 Use of the verbs 63-65
  English equivalent 'have already + PP'  
15 (To like) 66
  (To like) 67
  (To like) 68
16 Use of 'v. r.'- As soon as 69
  Use of - As soon as 71
  Use of 'v. r. No sooner…than… 72
17 Ability structure - can, could, be able to 73-77
  Language structures 73-75
  Uses of 76
  Use of the verb 77
18 Probability - Use of 78-82
  Language structures 79-80
  Examples: Present, past, future 80-82
19 Planned future: 'X' 83-85
20 Apprehensions 86
21 Use of - want 87-90
22 Use of present and past participle constructions 91-96
23 Use of the suffix 97-101
24 Use o the absolutive participle; - conjunct 102-104
25 Continuative compound: 'v. r. 'keep on v…ing' 105-109
26 Possessive case 110-112
27 Compulsion compounds : Use of 113-116
  Language structures expressing probability and compulsion 117-118
  Use of to express need or desire 119-121
28 Inceptive compound: 'v. r. 122-124
29 Permissive compound 'v. r.' 125-131
30 Conditionals: use of 132-135
31 Expressing wishes: use of 136-137
32 'X' / 'X' 138-142
  To be used to doing something  
33 Verbs 143-165
  Verb agreement 143
  Intransitive and transitive verbs 144
  Causative - 1: Causative -2 144-155
  Compound verbs 156-159
  Conjunct verbs 159-161
  Sense verbs 162-163
  Sound verbs 163-164
  Nominal verbs 165
34 Passive voice 166-178
35 Nouns 179-192
  Gender 179-184
  Cases 185
  Number 186
  Declension of the noun 186-191
  Use of infinitive as noun 192
36 Pronouns 194-201
  Personal pronouns 194-195
  Definite pronouns; Indefinite pronouns 195-200
  Interrogative pronouns 200-203
  Relative pronouns 204-205
  Reflexive pronouns 205-207
37 Adjectives 208-226
  Pronominal adjectives 208-211
  Adjectives of quality 211-213
  Adjectives : base from, comparatives, superlatives 214-218
  Declinable adjectives; Indeclinable adjectives 218-220
  Adjectives of number: cardinals; ordinals 221-222
  Multiplicatives; Aggregatives; Fractions 223-224
  Distributive adjectives 225
  Indefinite quantity adjectives 225-226
  Participles used as adjectives 226
38 Adverbs 227-232
  Classification 227-229
  Adverbial usages 230-232
  Participles used as adverbs 232
39 Use of postpositions 233-246
  Use of 233
  Use of 233-237
  Use of 237-240
  Use of 240-242
  Use of 242-244
  Use of 244-246
40 Time expressions 247-253
  What time is it ? How long does it take 247-248
  Use of time expression etc. 249-253
41 Usages 254-281
  When else, what else etc. 254
  God knows 254
  Echo words 255
  Uses of 256
  Uses of 257-258
  Use of 'or else' 'Not even' 259
  Use of (only) 260
  Use of (also) 261
  Use of (purpose clause); (reason clause) 261
  (neither…nor) 262
  Use of (either…or) 263
  (although - concessive clause) 261
  (After all), (certainly) 264
  (not at all); (of course) 265
  Use of (without); (even if) 266
  (because of) 267
  (instead of); 268
  (much more than) 268
  conditional; (on the contrary) 269
  (introductory use); (somehow) 270
  (as soon as) 271
  (progressive) 271
  (exactly the same as before) 272
  'X' 'X' 'X' (not to speak of X) 72
  (for a long time); 273
  (for no reason or purpose) 273
  'X' 'X' - nothing but 'X' 274
  'X' - 'Y' (whether X or Y) 274
  'X'- 'Y' (whether X or Y) 274
  (hardly) 274
  (come what may); 275
  (Do what you like) 275
  (in spite of) 276
  (v. r.) + (v. r.) + (it almost happened) 276
  (in no time) 276
  Reduplicative expressions 277
  Use of 278
  Relative adverbs: 278
  Relative pronouns: 279
  Use of some abstract nouns and their adjectival forms 280
  (to be visible); (to be audible) 281
42 Compare and comprehend 282-294
  Use of stative verbs, change of state verbs 282
  Use of 282
  Use of 283
  Use of 284
  More on pres. Cont. tense 285
  Use of 287
  Use of 288
  Use of 290
  Use of 291
  Use of IPC. PPC 292
  Use of -emphatic 293
43 imperatives and exclamations 294
44 Punctuation 295
45 Antonyms 296-297
46 Synonyms 298-300
47 Sound words 301
48 Idioms 303-311
49 Proverbs 312-313
50 READINGS Page
R-1 Pres. Simple 314
R-2 Imperative 317
R-3 Pres. Prog. tense 318
R-4 Pres. Prog. tense 319
R-5 Recapitulation 321
R-6 Past progressive 322
R-7 Possessive case 323
  Vocabulary: Blood relations 324
R-8 Time 325
R-9 Past tense 326
R-10 Past tense 328
R-11 Miscellaneous 330
R-12 {Press. Perf.} 331
R-13 {Press. Perf. Cont.} 332
R-14 Can, Could 333
R-15 Can, Could 334
R-16 Fut. tense 336
  Vocabulary: Planets, zodiac signs 337
R-17 Planned fut. 338
R-18 PPC; IPC 339
R-19 Cont. comp. 343
R-20 Prog. Comp. 346
R-21 Adjectives 348
R-22 Adjectives 350
R-23 Adjectives 352
R-24 Letter 354
R-25 Letter 356
R-26 Letter 358
  Recipes 361-362
  Vocabulary: fats, grains, species, cooking 362-365
51 EVERYDAY EXPRESSIONS  
EE-1   366
EE-2   367
    367
EE-3 Hiring a rickshaw 368
  Appointment 368
EE-4 Hospitality 369
EE-5 Asking directions 370
    371
EE-6 1 Changing money 373
  2 Opening an account 374
  3 Encashing Traveller's cheques 375
EE-7 Consulting the doctor 376
  Vocabulary: body parts 377
  Buying medicine 378
  Buying medicine 379
EE-8 1 Buying envelopes, stamps 380
  2 Sending parcels abroad 381
EE-9 Buying vegetables 384
  Vocabulary: vegetables 385
EE-10 Buying fruit 386
  Vocabulary: Fruit 387
EE-11 Dialogue - marriage in India 388
EE-12 1 Railway station 391
  2 Railway -information 391
13 Weather 394
  Appendix - 1 Hindu calendar months, dates; mathematical calculations  
  Appendix - 2 (Sandhi), (compound words)  
  Glossary Of Grammar Terms  
  Index - English  
  Index - Hindi  

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